With the Arabs Sicily enjoyed a period of cultural vitality, also gastronomic. They brought from Asia citrus, pistachio, rice, sugar cane, jasmine and mulberry tree and also introduced a variety of crops including anise, spinach, eggplant, sesame, carob, millet, melon, onion, shallot, artichoke, asparagus, peach and apricot. They carried out a diversification that replaced the monoculture of cereals of Romans and Byzantines. The Arabs introduced alcohol distillation in Sicily in addition to various agricultural and hydraulic technologies, but unlike in Arabia, in Sicily sugar, spices and fruit were added to the distillate, creating rosolio (liqueur). The cultivation of sugar cane, that started to spread around 945 especially in the Conca d’Oro, caused a revolution in the culinary field. It made possible making candied fruit, marmalades, jams, nougat (including the typical cubaita), glazes and syrups. The Sicilian pastry, as we know it today, began to take shape: ricotta, honey, pistachios, almonds were already the basic ingredients, and the first cannoli and cassate appeared. Sorbet and ice-cream are also of Arabic origin: the scursunera was a jasmine ice-cream, the first ever made though with healing aims. The art of drying pasta and preparing cous-cous were also Arab. In the early X century AD was created in Trabia a system for the production of triyah, from the Arabic itrija, a preparation based of flour in wire form: the first spaghetti in Italy. Pasta was often seasoned with sardines, just like today for one of the most characteristic first courses of the cuisine of Palermo. The batters and the sfincia, fried dough, were also introduced by the Arabs, also known for their preference for minced meat, often used as filling or in pies and timbales. The Arab tradition of selling ready-to-eat foods on the street was in continuity with the practice introduced by the Romans, giving strength to a trend that still survives and characterizes especially Palermo, in the form of the much celebrated street food.